Pathfinders: Support for Grieving Children

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Pathfinders: Support for Grieving Children

Pathfinders began its work in 1993. It offers a caring, safe environment where children, teens and their caregivers utilize peer support and grief education to creatively express, share and grow through the healing process.

The need for a grieving children’s program in the Bangor area was identified by Maria Brountas and the late Barbara Eames. In 1993, Maria and Barbara along with parents and other teachers, created Pathfinders. In 1994, the first session was held. The semi-annual ten-week sessions are “closed-group” sessions (as opposed to a drop-in group), allowing a bond of trust to develop among members of each support group. Children are grouped by age: 3-5; 6-8; and so on. Parents/caregivers are grouped according to the type of loss they’ve suffered, i.e., parent with spouse loss. Within each hour and a half time frame, the various groups meet, discuss and engage in activities that help them process their grief.

Enormous change occurs within the family structure when there is a death. Pathfinders promotes healthy grieving and healing within the family by offering children and their caregivers varied techniques to cope with that change. Through peer support discussions, family communication is encouraged for all participants by helping them each engage in their own grieving process in a healthy manner. And for adults, it also helps them to attend to the needs of their grieving children through learned techniques and strategies.

The semi-annual sessions are held in the Bangor region.
Volunteers are fundamental to the Pathfinders program, which offers support to grieving children and their families. Specially trained volunteers serve as facilitators, offering age appropriate opportunities for children and their family members both to express their grief and learn about the grieving process and develop new coping skills to handle their losses. If you are interested in becoming a volunteer or learning about becoming a volunteer, please contact Linda Boyle, Coordinator, 973-8269.

Skills Gained

As a facilitator, you can expect to gain skill and knowledge in the following areas related to grief and loss:

Better understanding and appreciation for the special concerns of grieving children and their families;
Group dynamics
Individual/Group communication/Teaming and co-teaming;
Conflict Resolution/Anger management;
Parenting in grief;
Child developmental stages related to the grieving process.
Grieving Children Recommended Readings:
  • Blackburn, L I Know I made it Happen. NE: Centering Corporation, 1991.
  • Buscaglia, L. The fall of Freddie the Leaf. NY: Henry Holt & Co., 1982
  • Cary, E., Steelsmith, S. When You're Mad and You Know It. NE: Parenting Press Inc.
  • (1996).
  • Cohen, C. Heiney, J. Daddy’s Promise. MO: Promise Publications, 1997.
  • Ferguson, D. A Bunch of Balloons. NE: Centering Corporation, 1992.
  • Hanson, W. The Next Place. ME: Waldman House Press, 1997.
  • Heegaard, M. When Someone Very Special Dies. MN: Woodland Press, 1998.
  • Johnson, M, Johnson, J. Where’s Jess? NE: Centering Corporation, 1992.
  • Leghorn, L. Proud of Our Feelings. Washington, DC: Magination Press, 1995.
  • Mundy, M. Mad Isn’t Bad. IN: One Caring Place Abbey Press, 1999.
  • Powell, S. Geranium Morning. MN: Carol Rhoda Books, Inc., 1990.
  • Prestine, J. Someone Special Died. CA: Fearon Teacher Aids, 1993.
  • Rogers, F. When a Pet Dies. NY: G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1988.
  • Schwiebert, Pat and DeKlyen, Chuck. Tear Soup, Grief Watch, 1999.
  • Spelman, C. After Charlotte’s Mom Died. IL: Albert Whitman and Company, 1996.
  • Varley, S. Badger’s Parting Gifts. NY: William Morrow & Co. Inc., 1984.
  • Vigna, Judith. Saying Goodbye to Daddy. IL: Albert Whitman & Co., 1991.
  • Viorst, J. The Tenth Good Thing about Barney. NY: Simon and Schuster Children’s Publishing Division, 1971.
Grieving Children's Network
Pathfinders-Hospice of Eastern Maine 
885 Union St., Suite 220 
EM Healthcare Mall 
Bangor, ME 04401 
207/973-8269
Contact:Linda Boyle, Bereave. Coord.
n2dlfns@aol.com

The Center for Grieving Children 
P.O. Box 1438
Portland, ME 04104 
207/775-5216 
Contact: Anne Lynch, Exec. Director 
Linda Kelly, Prog. Director 
Patricia Ellen, Outreach & Ed. 
www.cgcmaine.org

Transitions - Hospice Volunteers 
45 Baribeau Drive 
Brunswick, ME 04011 
207/721-9702
Contact: Margaret Pelletier, Prog. Coord. 
children@blazenetme.net

The Grieving Children & Teen Program
Hospice Volunteers of Kennebec Valley 

ME General Medical Center 
150 Dresden Avenue 
Gardiner, ME 04345 
207/626-1779
Contact: Tina DeRaps, Prog. Coord. 
hvokv@gwi.net

Program for Grieving Children & Teens 
P.O. Box 819 
Lewiston, ME 04243-0819 
207/777-7740
Contact:Jake Larivierre, Program Coor. 
jake.larivierre@ahch.org

Hospice of Hancock County 
14 McKenzie Ave. 
Ellsworth, ME 04605 
207/667-2531 
Contact: Barbara Clark, Exec. Director
Mary-Carol Griffen, Ber. Coord. 
bdchohc@panaz.com

Grieving Children's Program
Hospice Volunteers of Somerset County 
PO Box 3069
Skowhegan, ME 04976 
207/696-5870 
Contact: Linda Burkhart, Director 
Andrea Smith, Prog Coor.

Hospice Volunteers of Somerset County, Inc.
25 Pleasant Street 
PO Box 3069
Skowhegan, ME 04976
Tel. 207/474-7775
Fax. 207/474-7773
directorhvsc@verizon.net 
http://mysite.verizon.net/hvsc

Hospice Vol. of Waterville Area & Came Ray of Hope 
304 Main St. 
P.O. Box 200 
Waterville, ME 04903 
Tel. 207/873-3615 
Fax. 207/873-5094 
Contact: Dale Marie Clark, Exec Dir. 
dmclarck@hvwa.org

Seacoast Hospice/Bridges 
10 Hampton Road 
Exeter, NH 03833 
603/778-7391 
Toll Free 800/416-9207 
Contact: Meg Kerr, Ber. Coord. 
Elain Wiesman

Pete's Place 
1 Webb Place Suite 6 
Dover, NH 03820 
603/740-2689
Contact: Jan Arsenault, Prog. Mgr.
Grieving Assistance Program for Students 

Victims Inc. 
36 Springfield Estates 
Rochester, NH 03867 
603/330-0347
Contact: Monique Bruce
kidskids@verizon.net

The Circle, a newsletter for those who work with and care about grieving children, is published 2-3 times per year by Suzanne Bowman. Subscription contributions are $5 and can be mailed to:
Suzanne Bowman, Editor 
16 Old Ferry Lane 
Kittery, ME 03904 
207/439-6481

Grieving Teens Recommended Readings
  • Baugher, B. et al. Understanding Anger during Bereavement. MI: Production and Design. (1999).
  • Baxter, Grant and Stuart, Wendy. Death and the Adolescent: A Resource Handbook for Bereavement Support Groups in Schools. Toronto, Canada. University of Toronto Press, 1999.
  • Bode, Janet. Death is Hard to Live With: Teenagers Talk About How They Cope with Loss. New York: Bantam Doubleday, 1993.
  • Dougy Center. Helping Teens Cope With Death. Oregon: WesternLitho, 1999.
  • Dower, Laura. I Will Remember You: A Guidebook Through Grief for Teens. New York: Scholastic Inc. 2001.
  • Gootman, Marilyn E. When a Friend Dies: A Book for Teens About Grieving and Healing. Minneapolis, Free Spirit Publishing, 1994.
  • Fitzgerald, Helen. The Grieving Teen: A Guide For Teenagers and Their Friends. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
  • Frankel, PhD., Bernard and Kranz, Rachel. Straight Talk About Teenage Suicide. New York, Facts on File, Inc., 1994
  • Grollman, Earl A. Living When a Young Friend Commits Suicide. Boston, Beacon Press, 1999
  • Grollman, Earl A. and Malikow, Max. Straight Talk About Death for Teenagers. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.
  • Hipp, Earl. Help for the Hard Times: Getting Through Loss. Minnesota, Hazelden, 1995.
  • Hipp, Earl. Fighting Invisible Tigers: A Stress Management Guide for Teens. Minnesota, Free Spirit Publishing.1995
  • O’Toole, Donna. Facing Change: Falling Apart and Coming Together Again in the Teen Years. Burnsville, N.C.: Rainbow Publications, 1995.
  • Scrivani, M. When Death Walks In. Nebraska: Centering Corporation. (1991).
Resource Links for Children Resource Links for Teens Teens and Young Adults Program
Teens and young adults grieve differently than young children. It can be difficult for you to express your feelings or to even know how you are feeling. Friends do not typically understand your grief and loss. Finding a safe place to confidentially share your feelings and receive support from other teens experiencing loss can be an important step in your healing process.

Your town may be close enough to access the services of Pathfinders or other grieving program.. If your local area does not have a support program, we are hopeful the information on this website will be helpful; particularly the recommended reading lists and resource links.

The program is designed to provide support to children as well as teens and young adults. They are provided their own confidential environment to share with their peers that have experienced the loss of a loved one.

1. Who goes to Pathfinders?
If you are grieving the death of an important person in your life and are between the ages of 4 and 21, you and your family/caregivers are welcome at Pathfinders. Children, teens and young adults are assigned to different groups depending on age. Adults have their own groups.

2. How do I get to go to Pathfinders?
After the person you know dies, your parent(s) or caregiver(s) can call the Pathfinders Program Coordinator to schedule an intake interview. Once you and your family meet with the coordinator and the program is explained in detail, answering any questions, you and your family can decide if Pathfinders will be right for you.

3. I am a teen. Someone important to me died, but my parents didn't know the person very well. May I attend by myself?
Absolutely. Teens may attend Pathfinders without an adult as long as a signed permission slip by the parent(s) is provided. The teen may want the parent(s) to attend the first evening and the last evening of Pathfinders. Teens need to go through the same intake interview process as a child and family would be 
expected to do.

4. Is Pathfinders a sad place to be?
No. Pathfinders is a support group where grieving children, teens and families come to talk and share feelings about the people in their lives who died. Most of the time, Pathfinders is a very lively, happy, fun-filled place to be. Sometimes memories and stories are shared and feelings of sadness are experienced. However, it is okay to be sad, even cry, if it helps in feeling better. Pathfinders is a safe place to share all kinds of feelings.

5. Is going to Pathfinders like therapy or counseling?
No. Each group at Pathfinders is lead by two facilitators who assist everyone in the group. Group members are peers who are encouraged to provide support to one another. You cannot get a group experience one-on-one with a counselor. Facilitators do not counsel or advise in therapeutic matters. The facilitators' job is to assist in helping the group stay focused, provide safe boundaries, educate in children's/teen grief and support each participant.

6. Are facilitators like teachers?
Not really. Facilitators have had training to help make sure conversation flows fairly and people in the group are treated with respect and kindness. They have learned a lot about the differences and similarities in children's grief and adult grief. They do teach the vocabulary around grief to help families keep talking and caring for one another. Facilitators are probably best at listening. They know there is no right or wrong way to grieve; we each do it our own way. We can learn from and help one another.

7. What happens at Pathfinders?
Much activity, talking and fun happens at Pathfinders. New friends are made and ideas and emotions are expressed in a safe place. Everyone at Pathfinders is grieving. Children learn more about adult grief and adults learn how children grieve. Adults and children alike learn how to cope with the emotions grief brings, how to live with the changes that death forces upon a family and how to express feelings in healthy ways while taking care of themselves and each other.

8. What kinds of activities do kids do?
Kids at Pathfinders have made impressive clay sculptures, masks and sand art, torn up phone books and thrown eggs, made treasure boxes, stress balls, dream catchers, pillows, Zen gardens, garden stones, scrapbooks and journals. Often kids bring in their own ideas about creatively expressing themselves and honoring the persons in their lives who have died.

9. Do teens do the same kinds of "activities" that the younger kids do?
Teens tend to want to just hang out and talk. Discussion is an important part of group. Confidentiality is highly stressed. Videos are shown occasionally so that teens can more easily identify with other kids their own age who are experiencing what they perceive to be "their world falling apart" after a death. Teen group facilitators act as boundary keepers, guides and listeners. Once the group has found its' own "group identity", facilitators tend to encourage the group to support one another and surrender to "group driven activities". Certainly any activity that the younger ages partake in can also be adapted to have equal meaning for the teens. Music is extremely effective when used with teens in giving them voice to what they are feeling.

10. What have other kids said about attending Pathfinders?
At Pathfinders I learned:
  • “ …it’s better to talk than hold it in.”
  • “…I’ve changed because now I can talk about my grandmother (who died) without crying all the time.
  • “…how to not get too uptight in school. I pay more attention now.”
  • “…that painting and making butterflies is something fun to pay attention to instead of being upset all the time because someone died.”
  • “…it’s okay to cry. It’s okay to be sad and upset.”
  • “…I liked making paper tape dummies because I could “whack” them and get all my anger out.”

Pathfinders helped…
  • “…me by being with other teens and having their support. Just to be able to laugh, joke and have a good time for a short while at Pathfinders was most memorable.”
  • “…me think about the good times. I also realized that my mom was a good person but she just had problems of her own that caused her to not be able to take care of us.”
  • “…when we threw eggs and ripped phone books. It helped all my anger go away.”
  • “…all my bad dreams go away. I would come back because it helped me a lot.”
  • “…me and my mom. We did the phone book thing at home and she cried. I think it was okay because we talked about my dad and I felt better.”
  • “…it gave me the courage to think about the good times I had with my dad and not miss him as much.”
  • “ me make friends in my group; my friends made it a lot easier to talk about my feelings.”
  • “…me understand why certain holidays and special days make me remember my mom more and why I get sad.”
  • “…to make me feel less alone. I am not the only teen who has had a brother die by suicide. The people in my group helped me feel okay to talk about
    it.”.
Redeemer Lutheran Church
540 Essex Street, Bangor, Maine 04401

Directions:
From Interstate 95, take the Broadway Exit 185 (formerly Exit 48). Follow Broadway south about 1/2 mile to Stillwater Avenue (first light after you pass Saint Joseph’s Hospital on right). Take a left at the light. Follow Stillwater Avenue about 1/10 mile to Essex Street (it’s the first traffic light). Take a left and follow about 1/2 mile. We’re just before the I-95 overpass on the left.
To offer a caring, safe environment where children, teens, young adults and their caregivers utilize peer support and grief education to creatively express, share and grow through the healing process.

The following are goals that participants can expect to be met by the Pathfinders Program.
  • To provide support groups for children, their families, and caregivers who have experienced a death of an important person in their lives.
  • To help children and adults understand the emotional, behavioral, physical, social, and spiritual responses related to loss.
  • To help children and their families develop strategies for coping, communicating, and healing as a family.
  • To assist in defining a “new normal” in the children’s and families’ lives.
  • To help children acknowledge the death, feel the feelings, preserve memories, and move forward.
  • To provide parents/caregivers support and knowledge so they may better aid their child in the healing journey.
  • To assist in preventing any significant problems that can develop from unresolved childhood grief from death and loss.
  • To encourage families that seek a grief support group, yet, who may not be ready for a peer group setting, to get connected with other social service agencies or independent counselors to better meet their needs at the time.
  • To provide outreach in the form of grief education to schools in an effort to empower teachers and staff to feel comfortable and confident in their ability to assist grieving children.
  • To increase the community’s awareness and capacity to serve the needs of grieving children through the offering of education, grief resources and support groups for children and their families/caregivers.
Grieving Parents Recommended Reading
  • Ilene L. Dillon. Exploring Fear With Your Children. Enchante Publishing, 1994.
  • Doka, Ken. Children Mourning, Mourning Children. edited by Hemisphere Pub., 1995.
  • Ferguson, Dorothy. Little Footprints: A Special Baby’s Memory Book. Centering Corporation, 1989.
  • Fitzgerald, Helen. The Grieving Child: A Parent's Guide. Simon & Schuster, 1992.
  • Goldman, Linda. Life & Loss--A Guide to Help Grieving Children. Accelerated Development, Inc. 1994.
  • Heegaard, Marge Eaton. Drawing Together to Learn about Feelings. Fairview Press, 2003.
  • Krementz, Jill. How It Feels When a Parent Dies. Knopf, 1901.
  • Kroen, William C. Helping Children Cope with the Loss of a Loved One: A Guide for Grownups. Free Spirit Pub. 1996.
  • Lord, Janet Harris. No Time for Goodbyes. Pathfinder Publishing of California, 1987.
  • Nussbaum, RN, MS, Kathy. Preparing the Children. Compassion Books, 1998.
  • Schaefer, Dan & Lyons, Christine. How Do We Tell the Children? Newmarket Press, 1993.
  • Seibert, D., Drolet, J., Fetro, J. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Southern University Press, 2003.
  • Wolfelt, PhD, Alan. A Child’s View of Grief: A Guide for Parents, Teachers and Counselors. Companion Press, 2004
Parents and Caregivers Program

Your first concern is your children. How do you help them in the midst of your own grief? We can offer help to you and your children. Your town may be close enough to access the services of Pathfinders or other grieving children's program. If your local area does not have a support program, we are hopeful the information on this website will be helpful; particularly the recommended reading lists and resource links.

Pathfinders: Support for Grieving Children (to be referenced as Pathfinders) is a program of Hospice of Eastern Maine.

Pathfinders focus is directed towards the grieving child; however, the philosophy of the program is to support the family as a whole. The program was designed to provide support for children between the ages of 3 and 18 and their parents/caregivers. Children attending

Pathfinders must be accompanied by at least one family member/caregiver. We require this because children grieve differently from adults and the role of the parent/caregiver is to understand how to be a support to the child while experiencing their own grief. Teens attending the program may be allowed to participate without a family member present if the loss they are experiencing was a friend with whom there was little or no acquaintance with the family.
The role of the facilitator within each group is to ensure every member receives respect, feels safe and comfortable when choosing to share with the group, has the opportunity to be heard, recognizes, develops and applies what he/she already knows as individual strengths and is empowered to make decisions relative to daily living.

The child's developmental age and maturity, the type of loss and previous experience with loss are all factors that influence how a child grieves.

Children grieve differently than adults
  • Children experience grief, as do adults, with minds, bodies and spirits. Children experience physical symptoms as well as rapid changes in thoughts and feelings.
  • Children may not be able to put words to their grief. They may still be learning to name and describe their feelings; THEREFORE, children grieve through their SOCIAL INTERACTIONS and in their PLAY.
  • Children grieve in "spurts and stops". A child who is grieving can quickly change from being sad, angry or frustrated to wanting to play.
  • The child’s developmental age and maturity, the type of loss and previous experience with loss are all factors that influence how a child grieves.
  • Sometimes children seem unaffected by grief to adults because they do not fully understand the permanence of a loss or its meaning to them. When children feel overwhelmed by intense feelings, they may naturally make their world safe by distancing themselves physically or emotionally by pretending or by denying the reality of the loss.
  • Children are sensitive about being different. Grief and the intense feelings that go along with it may make children feel different and isolated from their friends.
Children are quick to blame themselves and think their thoughts or wishes about someone made them die (magical thinking). They also think they could have done something to prevent the death. Often times children will not disclose their feelings of self-blame.

What Children Need to Heal from A Death

Children Need:

To acknowledge that the loved one has died
  • Even if the children may have known the loved one was going to die, it still may come as a surprise to them. It may take children several months to acknowledge the death. They need a meaningful way to say goodbye.
To remember

Healing involves the development of a new relationship which is one of memory rather than presence. Children may get the message that it is best to forget and move on, especially if adults avoid talking about the person who died and avoid talking about their own memories. The only way for children to find hope and healing is by embracing their memories, if not allowed to do so, it could result in long term complications effecting the child’s physical and mental well-being.

Holidays and other special days- Find specific ways to honor the memories of the person who died on holidays and special days. Children need to know that the significance of their loved one did not end with his/her death.

To feel and express the pain of death

It is often believe that time alone will provide healing following a significant death. Children are quickly moved away from uncomfortable feelings, and adults tend to keep themselves busy to avoid facing the pain of death. However, it is moving toward the pain that ultimately heals. Children express pain differently at various ages and at different stages of the grieving process. Their reactions also depend on who died, how long the individual had been sick, and how prepared they were for the death.

Integrate the death into their lives

The death of a family member forever changes a child’s understanding of the world. Healing requires that the child find meaning in the death, develop a new self-identity and reinvest his/her emotional energy in other relationships.
  • Search for meaning-struggle will help child gain wisdom and personal growth.
  • New self-identity
  • New roles within the family.
  • Reinvesting emotional energy in others- afraid to love anyone again.
Resource Links for Parents

 
Pathfinders: Support for grieving children (Pathfinders) began its work in 1993. It offers a caring, safe environment where children, teens and their caregivers utilize peer support and grief education to creatively express, share and grow through the healing process.

The need for a grieving children’s program in the Bangor area was identified because of one teacher’s experience with a terminally ill child in her first grade classroom. It was soon realized that a common interest and desire to help grieving children and their families existed within the community. Eastern Maine Medical Center, the area’s largest healthcare facility and Hospice of Eastern Maine enthusiastically embraced the concept of providing support to grieving children. A committee comprised of hospital professionals (i.e. child life specialists and oncology social workers), parents, hospice volunteers, educators, school guidance counselors and representatives of other area support groups was formed to explore the possibility of creating a grieving program for children.

Information in support of establishing a bereavement program in the Bangor area was provided by the Dougy Center, a grieving children’s program, located in Portland, Oregon and The Center for Grieving Children housed in Portland, Maine. In November 1993, a public meeting was held to determine community interest and need. The response was positive and the first Pathfinders session commenced in early February of 1994 and continued for 10 weeks into May. Since 1994, Pathfinders has been offering 10 week sessions, semi-annually in the spring and fall of the year.
Information for Teachers
Teachers are in the unique (and difficult) situation to help children in their classroom who are suffering from loss. Your school may be located in a town close enough to access the services of Pathfinders or other grieving children's program. If your local area does not have a support program, we are hopeful the information on this website will be helpful. We encourage you to share this website with parents/caregivers and their grieving children.
Many families have never participated in a support group and are assured that it is not counseling.

Children grieve differently than adults:
  • Children experience grief, as do adults, with minds, bodies and spirits. Children experience physical symptoms as well as rapid changes in thoughts and feelings.
  • Children may not be able to put words to their grief. They may still be learning to name and describe their feelings; THEREFORE, children grieve through their SOCIAL INTERACTIONS and in their PLAY.
  • Children grieve in "spurts and stops". A child who is grieving can quickly change from being sad, angry or frustrated to wanting to play.
  • The child's developmental age and maturity, the type of loss and previous experience with loss are all factors that influence how a child grieves.
  • Sometimes children seem unaffected by grief to adults because they do not fully understand the permanence of a loss or its meaning to them. When children feel overwhelmed by intense feelings, they may naturally make their world safe by distancing themselves physically or emotionally by pretending or by denying the reality of the loss.
  • Children are sensitive about being different. Grief and the intense feelings that go along with it may make children feel different and isolated from their friends.
  • Children are quick to blame themselves and think their thoughts or wishes about someone made them die (magical thinking). They also think they could have done something to prevent the death. Often times children will not disclose their feelings of self-blame.
Teachers and Professionals Recommended Readings
  • Baxter, Grant and Stuart, Wendy. Death and the Adolescent. A Resource Handbook for Bereavement Support Groups in Schools. University of Toronto Press, 1999.
  • The Dougy Center. Helping the Grieving Student: A Guide for Teachers. USA: The Dougy Center for Grieving Children,1998.
  • The Dougy Center. When Death Impacts Your School: A Guide for School Administrators. The Dougy Center for Grieving Children, 2000.
  • Eberling, C. and Eberling, D. When Grief Comes to School. Bloomington Educational Enterprises, 1991.
  • Gilko-Braden, M. Grief Comes to Class. NE: Centering Corporation, 1992.
  • Hospice of Lancaster County. A Teacher’s Guide to the Grieving Student. Printed by the Hospice of Lancaster County, 1995..
  • Lagorio, LCSW, Jeanne. Life Cycles: Activities for Helping Children Live With Daily Change and Loss. Empowerment in Action, 1993.
  • SandCastles. Grief Support Program for Children and Families. Forever Changed: Children and Grief. Henry Ford Health System, 2000.
  • Seibert, D., Drolet, J., and Fetro, J. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Southern Illinois University Press, 2003.
  • Sutherland, Sandra. Good Grief: Helping Groups of Children When A Friend Dies. Baker and Taylor, 1985.
  • Whitehouse, E., Pudney, W. A Volcano in my Tummy. Canada: New Society Publishers, 1996.